Retreat from France

Last Updated: Mar. 12, 2008

Retreat from France (Third Turning, 1435–1459) was an era of dynastic decline and civil disorder. In 1435, not long after Joan of Arc’s execution, the English withdrew from Paris for the last time. In the 1440s, they were pushed out of France on all fronts. Thus ended the Hundred Years War. Meanwhile, the weak rule of young Henry VI eroded central authority in England. By the 1450s, noble houses flouted the law, vied for power, and engaged in private wars with impunity.

  • Arthurians entering childhood

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