War of the Roses

The War of the Roses (Fourth Turning, 1459–1487) began with an irrevocable break between the ruling Houses of Lancaster and York. After a bloody civil war, Yorkist kings (Edward IV, Edward V, Richard III) mostly prevailed in reigns that were punctuated with invasions and rebellions. At Bosworth Field (in 1485), Henry Tudor defeated Richard III and crowned himself Henry VII, founder of a new royal dynasty. Two years later he defeated a pretender at the Battle of Stoke, which won him the enduring confidence of his subjects.

  • Arthurians entering young adulthood
  • Humanists entering childhood

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