Reaction & Restoration

Reaction and Restoration (Third Turning, 1649–1675) was an era of drift and fierce controversy over the ideals of the original New World immigrants. Disoriented by fast-shifting events (Cromwell’s Protectorate in the 1650s, the Stuart Restoration in 1660, a war with Holland in which “New York” was captured in 1664), each colony fended for itself and cut its own deal with England. The era ended with the authority of colonial self-government ebbing—and worries about the future rising.

  • Parliamentarians entering elderhood
  • Puritans entering midlife
  • Cavaliers entering young adulthood
  • Glorious entering childhood

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