The Puritan Awakening (Second Turning, 1621–1649) began with Parliament’s “Great Protestation.” Upon the accession of James’ son, the reformist urge turned radical and gained popular momentum. Seeking religious exile, John Winthrop led a “saving remnant” of true believers to America. In England, this Puritan Enthusiasm led to the Long Parliament (in 1640), civil war, and the execution of Charles I (in 1649). In the new wilderness colonies, the experimental fervor receded, leaving isolated settlements seeking an enforceable moral orthodoxy.
- Elizabethans entering elderhood
- Parliamentarians entering midlife
- Puritans entering young adulthood
- Cavaliers entering childhood