Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation (Second Turning, 1517–1542) began in Germany with Martin Luther’s famous protest and spread swiftly to England. The enthusiasm peaked (in the mid-1530s) with King Henry VIII’s break with the Papacy, William Tyndale’s Bible, popular reform movements, and Parliament’s confiscation of vast Church estates. It ended when reformers tired or (like Thomas Cromwell) were executed, and when foreign wars with Scotland and France diverted the popular imagination.

  • Arthurians entering elderhood
  • Humanists entering midlife
  • Reformation entering young adulthood
  • Reprisal entering childhood


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